1500 - 1799 1800 - 1899 Gadgets that connected An infographic history of inventions that changed the world (and a few that didn’t) STETHOSCOPE (1816) An acoustic device for listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body. Inventor: René Laënnec (France) The first non-lethal instrument for exploring internal anatomy, so be thankful the next time your doctor places a cold stethoscope on your back and says, “breathe in”. Bonus fact: The device was not intended as a life-saver but simply to find out if someone was already dead. Research: SAMIM ABBAS & STEPHEN GRAHAM Infographic: PETER STADDEN MICROSCOPE (1590) An instrument to observe objects too small for the naked eye. Inventor: Zacharias Janssen (Holland) The microscope transformed medicine and paved the way for electron and light microscopes, allowing scientists to discover the smallest of particles. Bonus fact: Janssen invented the microscope and telescope, although the term microscope was only coined after Italian Galileo’s compound microscope of 1625. He called it “occhiolino” or “little eye”. SPINNING JENNY (1764) Multi-spindle spinning frame. Inventor: James Hargreaves (England). With one worker able to work eight Spinning Jenny machines at a time the labour required to produce yarn for cloth was massively reduced. Bonus fact: A myth suggests the machine was named after Hargreaves’ daughter or wife but none of his family were called Jenny! It’s more likely to be a derivation of the word ‘engine’. STEAM ENGINE (1606) An engine that performs mechanical work using steam. Inventor: Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont (Spain). While Ayanz held the original patent, Thomas Newcomen (England) originated its first commercial use as a mine pump and James Watt (Scotland) developed it to power locomotive engines. Drier mining and quicker long distance transport were the early beneficiaries. Bonus fact: Watt coined the word ‘horsepower’ to compare engine output to draft horses and a unit of energy was named after him. ANTISEPTIC (1867) Anti-microbial substance applied to skin or bodily tissue, to reduce the possibility of infection. Inventor: Joseph Lister (England) When Lister began work at Glasgow Hospital nearly half of all patients died post-operation. After Lister discovered antiseptics, the death rate dropped to 15%. Bonus fact: Lister also made other important medical contributions including a method of repairing kneecaps with metal wire. PRINTING PRESS (1450) A device for evenly printing ink onto a medium. Inventor: Johannes Gutenberg (Germany). The spread of the printing press is regarded as one of the most influential events in human history, revolutionising the way people described the world in which they live, and ushering in the period of modernity. Bonus fact: The increased speed and lower cost of text production paved the way for newspapers worldwide and the very notion of “The Press”. PHOTOGRAPH (1829) The preservation of a camera image. Inventor: Nicéphore Niépce (France) As exposure time decreased from the original eight hours, the popularity of cameras and photographs increased. Bonus fact: Camera Obscuras had been around since the 16th century, but Niépce’s work added the idea of preserving the image projected, by exposing it to paper that was coated with light-sensitive chemicals. RADIO (1873) A device able to broadcast sound. Inventor: James Clerk Maxwell (Scotland) was the first to show that electromagnetic waves could propagate through free space but it was Guglielmo Marconi (Italy) who brought radios into mainstream society in 1894. Radio as a means for communication accelerated in WW1 and public broadcasting took off in the 1920s. Bonus fact: A significant early use was during the sinking of The Titanic in 1912, helping the ship’s operators talk to nearby vessels. Key Health Science Media Transport Industry Communication Entertainment Business Leisure Home PAPERCLIP (1867) A bent wire clip that keeps documents together. Inventor: Samuel B. Fay (US) Despite a number of designs this stationery staple is still a hit because of its simplicity. Bonus fact: Fay’s invention wasn’t the round-edged design. That was made by Gem but never patented. TELEPHONE (1876) A device able to transmit speech electronically (beyond shouting distance) in real-time. Inventor: Alexander Graham Bell (Scotland). Being able to talk to others around the world created a communication revolution. Bonus fact: During his successful experiment Bell uttered the famous words to his assistant in the next room, “Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you.” 54 j THE DYNAMIC ISSUE
1900 - 1939 X-RAY (1895) Electro-magnetic radiation that can pass through many materials, opaque and light, to produce a photographic or digital image of the internal composition of something – notably the human body. Inventor: Wilhelm Röntgen (Germany) Being able to see inside people’s bodies had a profound effect on diagnosis. The medical use of X-rays was pioneered by Englishman Major John Hall-Edwards. Bonus fact: In 1908, Hall-Edwards had to have his left arm amputated because of the spread of X-ray dermatitis. TECHNOLOGY PENICILLIN (1928) Antibiotic drug to combat bacterial infections. Inventor: Sir Alexander Fleming (Scotland) After the chemical structure of penicillin was defined by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 1945, a method was devised to mass-produce it. Bonus fact: Had Fleming been more successful at persuading other scientists, penicillin for medicinal use might have been developed many years earlier. ASPIRIN (1899) A drug used to relieve pain, inflammation and fever. Inventor: Felix Hoffmann (Germany) The drug’s versatility has ensured its use ever since. Bonus fact: Lower doses of aspirin have also been shown to reduce the risk of heart attacks. AUTOMOBILE (1886) We know this one don’t we? Inventor: Carl Benz (Germany) What hit: Getting from A to B without following the rear end of a horse. Bonus fact: The first car with the name ‘Jaguar’ launched in 1935 by William Lyons; his Swallow Sidecars firm had previously only made motorcycle sidecars. AIRPLANE (1903) The first ‘sustained-flight’ flying machine. Inventor: Orville and Wilbur Wright (US) Why important? Just think about that next time you’re on board a jet en route to your favaourite Caribbean Island… Bonus fact: It was the Wright brothers’ work with bicycles that led them to believe that an unstable vehicle, like a flying machine, could be controlled and balanced with practice. TELEVISION (1927) Device for transmitting and receiving moving images. Inventor: No individual is credited, but both Philo Farnsworth and Charles Francis Jenkins (both US) were pioneers. Bringing moving images into the home transformed living rooms worldwide. Bonus fact: On July 20th, 1969, the first TV transmission was made from the moon. 600 million people watched. LIGHT BULB (1878) The first commercial electric light bulb. Inventor: Thomas Edison (US) Light without the need for dozens of candles was born. Bonus fact: In 1880, the US steamer Columbia, became the first application for Edison’s lamps. DOMESTIC FRIDGE (1913) An electric appliance used for cooling food products at home. Inventor: Fred W. Wolf (US) Made keeping food (and other stuff) cool and fresh in the kitchen easier. Bonus fact: Wolf is credited with the first commercially-viable electric refrigerator but it wasn’t until General Motors bought a small fridge company, rebranded it Frigidaire and applied car-style mass-production techniques, that sales took off. continues on next spread
Jaguar Magazine celebrates creativity in all its forms, with exclusive features that inspire sensory excitement, from beautiful design to cutting-edge technology.
In this issue, we explore the art of creativity from the Brazilian masters who devised the graceful art of Capoeira, to the Irish artists mixing new culture with old. You will also discover the creative line that links Victorian wallpaper to the iPhone. While the multi-talented actor and performer, Riz Ahmed, explains why it is the right time to reveal his true self to the world.
Registered Office: Abbey Road, Whitley, Coventry CV3 4LF
Registered in England No: 1672070
The fuel consumption figures provided are as a result of official manufacturer's tests in accordance with EU legislation. A vehicle's actual fuel consumption may differ from that achieved in such tests and these figures are for comparative purposes only.